fruits are dry and brittle, the Hilum-Mikropylar region is even, about the width of the seed's diameter, the Cuticula of the seed is peeling off partly.
The focal point of circulation lies in the basic mountains of Sierra de Cordoba and Sierra de San Luis, rays reach up to Patagonia and the island mountains of Argentinean province Buenos Aires, up to Entre Rios and the western border of Uruguaya, and some reach Sierra Ancasti in the northwest. An oupost is located in the outmost south of province Salta. A dispersion south of 53rd degree of latitude is not possible due to adversarial climatic conditions.
The character of the seed's Testa-cells differs and is necessary as criterion for the division into sections.
Subgenus I Gymnocalycium: Sectio A Gymnocalycium - Testa-cells somewhat levied, beamless, black
Sectio A Gymnocalycium is subdivided into 3 series, the criteria of which are size of the flower and colour of the gullet
--------- Series a - Gymnocalycium
--------- Series b - Lafaldensia
--------- Series c - Quehliana
fruits are dry and brittle